Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)

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  • Utkarsh Dwivedi asked: Can India's International North-South Transport Corridor be a counter to China's Belt and Road Initiative?

    Meena Singh Roy replies: The International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is not a counter to China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). INSTC was conceived long before BRI came into picture. INSTC is a join initiative taken by India, Russia and Iran. The ‘Inter-Governmental Agreement on International “North-South” Transport Corridor’ was signed by the three countries in Saint Petersburg on September 12, 2000.

    Makran Gateways: A Strategic Reference for Gwadar and Chabahar

    The spirit of 'Connectivity', a salient motif in early-twenty first century international relations (IR), has provided an amenable context for a review of geo-determinism in IR theory and the defence of classical geopolitical models as analytical frameworks. No contemporary case study is perhaps more admissible in this regard than the scramble for connectivity leadership in Central and South Asia.

    India’s Policy Response to China’s Investment and Aid to Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives: Challenges and Prospects

    Regional strategic dynamics in South Asia is in a state of flux since the announcement of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). China emphasises on the economic aspect of investment in infrastructures and energy projects, but strategic underpinning are very much apparent. China loan has created indebtedness in these countries and has helped Beijing to gain strategic foothold in the region which India considers as core to its security. India’s aid programme though focuses on the neighbourhood, it remains small compared to China and suffers from delivery deficit.

    May 2019

    The BRI and Sino-Indian Geo-Economic Competition in Bangladesh: Coping Strategy of a Small State

    This article explains the Sino-Indian geo-economic competition in Bangladesh in the wake of the former’s launching of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013. Beijing intends to fund various large-scale infrastructure projects in Bangladesh under the BRI which has prompted India to make its own offer of economic assistance to counter the Chinese initiative. The Sino-Indian competition has created challenges and opportunities for Bangladesh. Dhaka is pursuing a balanced policy to manage the competition and advance its own interests.

    May 2019

    A Road Through Pakistan, and What This Means for India

    Pakistan’s largest donor has been the United States of America, granting around $ 70 bn in aid. In 2015, China, as part of its One Belt One Road global ambitions, promised Pakistan $ 46 bn (since revised to $ 60 bn), for a road running from its border to the port of Gwadar. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), is being seen as a ‘fate-changer’ for Pakistan. CPEC could change Pakistan’s fate in more ways than one; this article explores the domestic and regional consequences of China’s involvement in Pakistan, and what this will mean for South Asia and for India.

    May 2019

    The BRI and India’s Grand Strategy

    India’s rejection of the BRI for strategic reasons does not mean it is resistant to Chinese investments, which are—to the contrary—both welcome and rapidly increasing. Indian strategy in this respect is in accord with the changing character of the international system, where strategic competition co-exists with economic cooperation as well as competition. In contemporary international politics, structurally driven conflictive behaviour is modified by high levels of strategic and economic interdependence.

    March 2019

    The BRI and India’s Neighbourhood

    Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed to build an ‘economic belt’ and a ‘21st-century Maritime Silk Road’ in 2013 which were formalised as the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ (BRI) in a document—‘Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-century Maritime Silk Road’—released by the National Reform and Development Commission in 2015.

    May 2019

    Xi's Belt-Road Initiative: Recalibration, Strategic Imperatives

    While still in the evolution stage, BRI has the potential to be a game changer in China’s quest to shape a ‘Sino-Centric’ Global Order.

    May 22, 2019

    Belt and Road Initiative: An opportunity or risk for Africa?

    China's Belt and Road Initiative helps African countries in reducing the infrastructure gap in the region. However, it also leaves them open to the risk of unsustainable debt.

    April 15, 2019

    Ashok Kumar asked: What is the politico-strategic impact of China's SEZ in Kyaukphyu and the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor on India? Why India has not been able to achieve such advantages in Myanmar?

    Udai Bhanu Singh replies: China-Myanmar Economic Corridor (CMEC) has been touted as a flagship project of Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Myanmar. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) to establish CMEC was signed between the two countries in September 2018.

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