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  • Ittender Bagha asked: Why doesn’t the government deploy army in the Maoist-infested areas?

    Vivek Chadha replies: There has been a long-standing debate on the deployment of Army in the Maoist-infested areas. One of the first instances, when this debate came into the public domain, was in 2010, when the then Chief of Army Staff, Gen. V.K. Singh, ruled out the deployment of the Army. The debate has repeatedly come to the fore since after major incidents of Maoist violence.

    Third Bodo Accord and Insurgency in Western Assam

    While the third Bodo accord is a momentous development in the history of the Bodo conflict, caution must be exercised to ensure that it does not fall victim to the factional politics that undermined previous accords.

    February 19, 2020

    Shubham Muskawar asked: How effective is 'community policing' in Naxal-affected areas? Are there any case studies available on it?

    P.V. Ramana replies: In order to defeat the Naxalites, it is essential that the people are involved. ‘People’ are like ‘water’ to fish. Once the people turn against the Naxalites, the latter would automatically, and naturally, become irrelevant. This strategy of involving the people was, for instance, successfully implemented in undivided Karimnagar District of what is now Telangana State.

    Saikiran asked: What kind of technology is used by the Naxals to communicate with each other?

    P.V. Ramana replies: The Naxalites/Maoists have used cell phones to communicate with one another. However, in an express instruction, erstwhile general secretary Muppala Lakshmana Rao alias Ganapathy forbade their usage as they are susceptible to interception, which could give away the location of those in communication, as well as operational secrets.

    Pankaj asked: What are the different measures being taken by GoI to tackle smuggling of arms and ammunition by Naxals?

    P.V. Ramana replies: The Union government, in association with the State government(s), monitors known routes and suspected persons to deal with the smuggling of arms and ammunition by the Naxals/Maoists.

    Prateek Goyal asked: What is ‘Urban Naxalism’?

    P.V. Ramana replies: The presence of, and activities carried out by, Naxalites, or the CPI (Maoist), in urban areas –– towns and cities –– are together termed as Urban Naxalism.

    Garvit Gangwar asked : What is the present cadre strength of the Naxalites, including in each of the affected states?

    P.V. Ramana replies: Naxalites of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) have a presence in 90 districts spread across 11 States in the country. Of these, 30 districts are considered to be most affected.

    It is estimated that the all-India armed-underground strength of the Maoists is around 6,000.

    It is difficult to estimate their State-wise strength.

    Posted on June 05, 2018

    Maoist Finances

    This article shows that the Maoists have been collecting not less than Rs 140 crore annually from a variety of sources: businesses—big and small—industry; contractors engaged in various trades; corrupt government officials; and political leaders. The largest and principal sources of income for the Maoists are the mining industry, PWD works, and collection of tendu leaves. They have been able to put in place a well-organised mechanism to extort money on a regular basis. Besides, they have conceived ingenious ways to store money and ensure its safety.

    April-June 2018

    Hemant Kumar asked: What can be done to minimise casualties among the CRPF personnel engaged in anti-Naxal operations and how Naxalism can be eradicated from Chhattisgarh?

    P.V. Ramana replies: The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and all other Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) deployed in Anti-Naxal Operations (ANO) would need to adhere to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) in order to minimise casualties.

    Calibrated security response together with vigorous development measures would help to meet the Naxalite challenge in Chhattisgarh. These would include health, education and connectivity.

    For more on the subject, please refer to the following IDSA publications:

    Mukesh Kumar asked: How Naxalism in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh or Andhra Pradesh are different from each other in terms of goal, ideology, impact, etc.

    P.V. Ramana replies: It is not different. It is spearheaded by a single group known as the Communist Party of India (Maoist) or CPI (M). It has a presence across 106 districts in 10 States including in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.

    The objective is to capture/seize political power through an armed revolution or ‘protracted people’s war’. Their ideology is based on Marxism – Leninism – Mao Tse Tung (MLM) thought.