The 2005 US—India nuclear pact created ripples of controversy and debates within in a short period of time. In the US, the nuclear agreement was weighed vis-à-vis the non-proliferation regime—does it strengthen or weaken the regime? On the contrary, in India concerns were raised regarding the implications for India's strategic as well as civilian nuclear programmes. This article highlights the disjuncture in the concerns raised in the US and India. Using David Mutimer's constructivist analysis, it is argued that this divergence is due to their contrasting perspectives on nuclear technology as regards ‘proliferation’ and ‘disarmament-development’.