Environmental Warfare

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  • Harry asked: What is the importance of C4I2 in modern wars?

    Mandip Singh replies: C4I2 systems stand for Command, Control, Communications, Computing, Intelligence and Interoperability. C4I2 systems provide a tactical commander with the state-of-the-art equipment to exercise control and manoeuvre his forces. C4I2 systems are designed to cater to the three critical needs of a commander on the battlefield - latest and updated intelligence, decision aids, and the capability to transmit these decisions to the forces under command.

    The basic ingredients are:

    • Command - a person who is responsible for conduct of the mission.
    • Control – resources placed under the control of the commander.
    • Communications – means to transmit decisions, e.g., radio, secure communication transmission networks, VSAT, satellite transponders, etc.
    • Computing – use of data, audio and video, with a host of automation equipment like LAN, WAN, photocopiers, fax , telephones, teleprinters, etc.
    • Intelligence-gathering of real time information by satellites, air or ground sensors, integrated observation aids, radars, etc.
    • Interoperability – use of a common medium between users, e.g., optical fibre, common bandwidth, etc.

    The basic challenges to an effective and efficient C4I2 network is survivability, reliability, robustness and cost effectiveness. Its areas of interface or information exchange in the military domain are: joint operations, joint planning, integrated logistics, joint intelligence and joint training.

    In a strategic context, a robust and reliable C4I2 system provides a credible deterrence in the event of a nuclear war. This is ensured by positive control of nuclear assets, by providing adequate time for assessment and decision-making, use of discriminate retaliation measures and enhanced capability to manage crisis situations.

    China’s Experiments with Weather Modification: A Cause for Concern

    Weather patterns in a neighbouring state can be affected by experiments conducted on own territory. China needs to clear suspicions that have been aroused by its weather modification actions.

    October 12, 2009

    Geophysical Threats and ENMOD

    The term “environment” has come to be used in security discourse at three levels. At the first level is the issue of the degradation of the natural resource base, exhaustion of renewable resources and the upsetting of ecosystems by human action, all of which are contributing to environmental degradation and global climate change. The second level is the link between environment and war. Preparations for war and the use of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction have caused the maximum damage to the environment.

    May 16, 2008

    Changing Geographical Factors in Planning and Conduct of Indian Military Operations

    The changing nature of geography plays a critical role in the planning and execution of military missions. Geography as a subject combines both the physical and human elements and the rapid transformation of the landscape owing to climate change, and the corresponding cultural impact has to be seriously considered in the environment-security link. Lessons from military history point to the fact that 'geographical ignorance' can be perilous.

    March 2008