India-Nepal Relations

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  • Hans Raj Singh asked: What are the major problems on the Indo-Nepal border and how they can be resolved?

    Nihar Nayak replies: India-Nepal border is unique. It is an open and the most peaceful border in Asia. The present arrangement supports the sustenance of livelihood and cultural linkages of millions of people in the region. However, this asset is turning into a liability due to extra-regional countries’ design to destabilise the relationship between India and Nepal. One country is consistently instigating certain sections in Nepal by saying that open border has been responsible for the underdevelopment in Nepal. Therefore, it should be closed. Its design is to close the border to check the inflow of ‘anti-national elements’ from India. Another country takes advantage of the open border and wants to destabilise India by using the Nepal territory. For example, terrorist outfits like LeT, Indian Mujahideen and some insurgent groups from North Eastern part of India have been using the open border to provide logistical support (supply of trained cadres, fake Indian currency, and terror finance by using Nepalese banks, dispersal of small arms and explosives and narcotics) to their clandestine operations in India.

    Apart from that, there are frequent reports of misuse of open border by local criminal gangs, smuggling of subsidised consumer goods and allegations of encroachment of territory. People living in the border region of both the countries are involved in these activities.


    Since 98 per cent of the border is demarcated by the joint survey, both the countries should resolve the border disputes by singing on the survey report. That will avoid border encroachment disputes.

    Second, since both the countries are affected due to the misuse of open border by internal and external forces, the responsibility of border management and regulation depends on both. Although India has taken certain measures, like deployment of additional SSB personnel (presently 45,000, Nepal only 4,500), construction of integrated border check posts and capacity building programmes for the SSB, similar responses are required from Nepal.

    Last but not the least, meetings pertaining to joint border management mechanism should be organised regularly for effective border management, coordination, and to avoid any kind of misunderstanding between both the countries.

    India's Economic Miracle and its Impact on Nepal

    For a long time, it was common practice to term the rate of economic growth in India the ‘Hindu rate of growth’—a derogatory term for the low growth rate of the economy.

    January 2012

    The Madhesi Movement in Nepal: Implications for India

    This article examines the different narratives on the ‘Madhes’ identity, and situates this discourse in the ethno-linguistic mosaic of the Terai region as well as the larger Nepali political scenario, by identifying the reasons for their increasing assertiveness in politics. The paper argues that exploitation and discrimination by the upper-caste Pahadi migrant communities (especially during the monarchy period) and the Nepali state has played an important role in the consolidation of the Madhesi identity.

    July 2011

    Nepalese PM’s Visit to India: “Qualified Success”

    Prime Minister Bhattarai’s visit will definitely help in dispelling some of the mistrust between India and the Maoist regime in Nepal.

    November 04, 2011

    Political Cost of PM Bhattarai’s India Visit

    The visit gave an opportunity to both India and the Maoists to settle some of their misunderstandings. However, it could be a huge risk for India to engage him more at the individual level than at the party level.

    October 31, 2011

    Prime Minister Bhattarai’s Visit to India: Renewing Ties in a Critical Transition Phase

    Bhattarai’s visit was historic not for the bilateral issues that were discussed but because it provided an opportunity for meaningful re-engagement between India and the UCPN(M).

    October 25, 2011

    Benefits of the Pegging Arrangement Between Nepali and Indian Currencies

    In the existing situation, any effort to do away with the pegging arrangement would further invite capital flight from Nepal and thus affect business, trade and other economic activities.

    July 21, 2011

    China’s Expanding Footprint in Nepal: Threats to India

    Nepal used to be a safe zone for India. China was least interested in Nepal till 1950s. But strategic design changed once China forcefully occupied Tibet. Nehru tried to strengthen the Indian positioning in Himalayan sphere vis-àvis China. Things became more complicated once China started intruding in Nepal. This article tries to see the emerging Chinese threats from Nepal. Since 1,751 km India-Nepal border runs through 20 districts of five Indian states. The India-Nepal border is open. China has tried through its long strategy to erase Nepalese dependency on India.

    April 2011

    Time to Reassure Nepal

    S.M. Krishna should reassure the people of Nepal that India has always acted in the interests of the Nepalese people and that it has no intention to interfere in the internal politics of the country.

    April 19, 2011

    Water Security for India: The External Dynamics

    Water Security for India: The External Dynamics
    • Publisher: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses

    India is facing a serious water resource problem and as trends suggest, it is expected to become 'water stressed' by 2025 and 'water scarce' by 2050. Premised on this, this IDSA Report raises fundamental questions about the forces driving water demand and the political dynamics of riparian relations, both in terms of hindrances and opportunities, amongst states in the subcontinent.

    • ISBN 81-86019-83-9 ,
    • Price: ₹. 350/-
    • E-copy available