India-Nepal Relations

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  • Strategic Himalayas: Republican Nepal and External Powers

    Strategic Himalayas: Republican Nepal and External Powers
    • Publisher: Pentagon Press
      2014

    The ten years of Maoist insurgency followed by the political vacuum after the abolition of the monarchy and the delay in the drafting of the Constitution has given credence to the role of external powers in shaping the domestic politics in that country. The book examines the nature of external powers’ role during the political transition in Nepal since 2006. It analyses Nepal’s relations with external powers’ in the framework of ‘small and major powers’.

    • ISBN 978-81-8274-761-6,
    • Price: ₹. 995
    • E-copy available
    2014

    Future of India–Nepal Relations: Is China a Factor?

    Nepal shares an open border of 1,868 km with five Indian states (Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim) and 1,415 km with Tibet. Under the 1950 Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India, Nepali citizens enjoy ‘national’ treatment and Nepali businesses unhindered rights of trade, transit and movement. An estimated six million Nepalese live and work in India and contribute to their inward remittances. Social intercourse along the Gangetic plane is described by people as ‘roti-beti ka sambandh’ (a relationship based on sharing of hearth and marriage).

    March 2015

    Settling border disputes with Nepal and Bangladesh

    Settling border disputes with Nepal and Bangladesh

    Given that the onus for settling the border disputes with Nepal and Bangladesh is on India, the Indian government has to demonstrate political wisdom in evolving political framework that would satisfy the national interests of both India and Nepal as well as win over the domestic opposition to the LBA.

    October 10, 2014

    Politics and Perceptions of Indian Aid to Nepal

    India has significantly invested in Nepal’s development through economic assistance since 1952. Despite deploying aid to win the hearts and minds of the people of Nepal, India has not entirely succeeded in doing so. Paradoxically, an analysis of Indian aid and gaps in the planning, processes, modalities and perceptions of India’s motivation shows that it has possibly contributed to the fuelling of anti-India sentiments among the Nepalese population.

    May 2014

    Krishnadev Asked: Why does India have an open border with Nepal?

    Pushpita Das replies: The seeds of an ‘open’ border between India and Nepal can be found in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship which the two countries signed in 1950. Articles VI and VII of the Treaty specify that citizens of both countries have equal rights in matters of residence, acquisition of property, and employment and movement in each other’s territory; thus, providing for an open border between the two countries. These provisions allowed the citizens of India and Nepal to cross their shared borders without passport and visa restrictions.

    In fact, the practice of keeping the borders with Nepal open is a British legacy which was continued by India after the independence. During the colonial times, the British required Gorkhas for their army and the Nepalese market for their finished goods. These requirements necessitated unrestricted cross-border movement of both goods and people. In addition, the rise of an assertive China and the absence of any physical barrier between India and Nepal compelled India to define the Himalayas, lying north of Nepal, as its northern barrier with China. Thus, the open border between India and Nepal not only addressed the mutual security concerns, but also fostered close socio-economic relations between the two countries.

    The unrestricted flow of people over the years has resulted in the dissemination of ideas, culture, and settlements of people in each other’s territory, thereby, strengthening the bilateral social and cultural relations. The open border also has had a favourable impact on the two economies. Nepal is a landlocked country and its closest access to the sea is through India. As a result, most of its imports pass through India. As for India, it is the biggest trading partner of Nepal. An open border has also allowed many Nepalese citizens to find employment in India and Indians to open business ventures in Nepal.

    Need to effectively manage the India-Nepal Border

    Transforming the India-Nepal border from an ‘open border’ to a ‘closed border’ would severely damage the traditional socio-cultural and economic ties. It would be prudent to keep the border open but manage it more effectively through mutual cooperation.

    September 19, 2013

    Nepal–India Cooperation in River Water Management

    There is a perception in certain quarters that Nepal was not given due share in the three major water deals between Nepal and India, namely the Kosi Agreement, the Gandak Treaty and the Mahakali Treaty. However, these projects were found to be mutually advantageous to both Nepal and India. If there was any shortcoming in the Kosi Agreement or the Gandak Treaty, it was due to the lack of experience on the part of India. As and when the need was felt, India reciprocated the Nepalese sentiments by way of making revisions in the treaty/agreement.

    March 2013

    D.Aravind asked: How can India play an effective role in Nepal's sabilisation?

    Anshuman Behera replies: The prolonged political crisis in Nepal has been a matter of great concern for India. Any upheaval in Nepal has a spill over impact on India. India faces two serious problems vis-à-vis the ongoing political impasse in Nepal. Some political forces think that India can and should play a major role in settling the problems in Nepal, whereas others question the legitimacy of India’s role. In recent years, the anti-India feeling in Nepal has seen a phenomenal rise. In the present context, where there is lack of trust among the political parties in Nepal, India has to be careful about playing its part in resolving the current crisis.

    India had earlier played a major role in the signing of the 12-point agreement between the Seven Party Alliance and the Maoists in 2005. At that time, there was a consensus among the political parties on fighting the common enemy, the King. But the political equation in Nepal this time around is completely different. There is no common enemy and at the same time there is no consensus on several key issues pertaining to the political future of Nepal. At this juncture, what India can best do is to help build a consensus among the political parties to agree on taking the process of constitution-making to its logical end. Any attempt to support or favor any political constituency by India, would create even more anti-India sentiments in Nepal.

    Drug Trafficking in India: A Case for Border Security

    Drug Trafficking in India: A Case for Border Security

    Trafficking of drugs takes place overwhelmingly through land borders followed by sea and air routes. Given the vulnerability of the borders to drug trafficking, India has tried to tackle the problem through the strategy of drug supply and demand reduction, which involves enacting laws, co-operating with voluntary organisations, securing its borders and coasts by increasing surveillance, as well as seeking the active cooperation of its neighbours and the international community.

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