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  • Meeting the Maoist Challenge

    Meeting the Maoist Challenge

    In the wake of the Sukma attack, it is apparent that the CPI-Maoist's weather- and surrender-induced operational frailty is a matter of the past.

    January 08, 2015

    CPI (Maoist) and Urban Movement

    The Urban Movement has a defined role in the political strategy and military strategy of the CPI (Maoist). In the Maoist schemes, Urban Movement is to broadly to mobilise and organise the basic masses and build the party on that basis ; build the United Front ; and military tasks .

    May 12, 2014

    Surajit Roy asked: How the implementation of the new Land Acquisition Act will curb the Maoist menace?

    Amit Kumar replies: The Left Wing Extremism (LWE) or Maoist movement takes its sinew from the security, administrative and political vacuum that extends over vast areas in parts of the country. The twin process of liberalisation and globalisation has further aggravated this threat by alienating some sections of the society. The Maoist strategy of protracted war recognises the strength and superiority of the state’s brute force, but recognises, equally, its vulnerabilities.

    One such vulnerability emanates from the non-implementation of land reforms in many states, which has resulted in the amassing of large tracts of land by a few at the cost of many which in turn has led to huge unrest among the later to be exploited by the Maoists. The post-liberalisation economic policies have focused on high growth rates, which comes at the cost of social exclusion of many. The previous land acquisition policy, which tantamount to land grabbing, affected millions of families particularly in the hinterlands which have long been a fertile ground for the Maoists. These affected families either become sympathisers or join the Maoist rank-and-file. In either case, they are helping the Maoist strategy of protracted war.

    As part of a continuing effort to deal with LWE in a holistic manner, the government has passed The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013, replacing the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. Contrary to the previous act, the new act strikes a balance between developmental goals and rights of the affected people. Unlike the old act, the new act provides for the rehabilitation & resettlement and compensation for loss of livelihoods. There was always a need felt for addressing the concerns of farmers and those whose livelihoods are dependent on the land being acquired while facilitating land acquisition for industrialisation, urbanisation and building infrastructure considered necessary for country’s economic growth. The new act stipulates that land acquisition and rehabilitation & resettlement (R&R) must go together and should be seen as two sides of the same coin.

    The salient features of the new land acquisition act are:

    1. Safeguarding Food Security
    2. Minimum Compensation for Land
    3. Minimum R&R Entitlements
    4. Infrastructural Amenities under R&R
    5. Safeguards against indiscriminate acquisition
    6. Transparency Provisions
    7. Timelines
    8. Retrospective effect
    9. No involuntary displacement will take place without completion of R&R.
    10. As far as possible, no acquisition of land shall be made in the Scheduled Areas.
    11. The definition of “affected family” has been made very humane to include the hitherto neglected sections of society whose primary source of livelihood stands affected by the acquisition of land.
    12. No change from the purpose or related purposes for which the land is originally sought to be acquired shall be allowed.
    13. Public Disclosure - All documents mandatorily to be made available in the public domain and on the website.
    14. No land use change shall be permitted if rehabilitation and resettlement is not complied with in full.
    15. Consent of 80 per cent of land owners is needed for acquiring land for private projects and of 70 per cent landowners for public-private projects.

    The new act heralds a new era of development administration in India, quite different from the traditional administration characterised by authoritative and directive style of administration. If implemented successfully, the new act will thwart the Maoist moves in two ways: (a) the hitherto affected developmental projects will gather momentum, which in turn (b) would lead to new employment generation opportunities in the Maoist-infested areas resulting in overall prosperity of the affected people.

    Posted on April 22, 2014

    Examining the Maoists' attacks in Jeeram Ghati

    Jeeram Ghati area is part of the Maoist's annual Tactical Counter Offensive Campaign. 2014 is a significant year on two counts: one, it is the tenth year of formation of CPI (Maoist) that requires a show of its strength and lethal prowess, and two, that general elections, scheduled in April-May, need to be disrupted. It, therefore, does pose a serious challenge to the security forces in the immediate future.

    March 27, 2014

    Maoist Finances: Sources, Methods of Collection and Utilization

    Citing IDSA Report, the Minister of State for Home Affairs, RSN Singh said in the Rajya Sabha recently that “…the CPI(Maoist) party has been collecting not less than Rs 140 crores annually from a variety of sources. Further, the possibility of certain front organizations of the CPI (Maoist) … clandestinely getting foreign funds cannot be ruled out.”

    February 17, 2014

    Maoists Look for Safe Sanctuaries and External Support

    The CPI (Maoist) is fully aware that a movement of this magnitude cannot sustain on its own for long without any external support; be it in terms of funding, weaponry, training, refuge or ideological support. Given India’s geopolitical location, it would come as no surprise if the CPI (Maoist), through its aggressive efforts, is able to garner substantive resources for its disposal.

    January 27, 2014

    Internal Security Trends in 2013 and a Prognosis

    The internal security situation in India reflected a marked improvement in 2012-2013 relative to previous years. This Issue Brief offers an assessment of the major trends in 2013 for Jammu and Kashmir, the land borders of India, Naxalism, the Northeast, terrorism and radicalism in India. It also offers a prognosis for the year ahead.

    January 24, 2014

    Malkangiri: The Tri-junction under Maoist Fire

    Compared to the worst Maoists-affected state of Odisha, in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, the level of violence has come down substantially. In the coming years, Malkangiri and other south-western border districts of Odisha will continue to bleed because of the Maoist quest for safe havens in these districts during hot pursuit by the Chhattisgarh police.

    January 23, 2014

    India’s Maoists: Financing the war machinery

    In a document entitled ‘Our Financial Policy’, the Maoists mention that they have three types of economic needs, viz. the needs of war, political propaganda and the people. To cater to these needs there are three broad categories of resources, viz. (a) membership fee, levy and contributions from the people; (b) confiscation of the wealth and income of the enemy; and (c) ‘revolutionary taxes’ collected in guerrilla zones and base areas.

    December 27, 2013

    Taming India’s Maoists: Surrender and Rehabilitation

    This article seeks to make a preliminary assessment of the surrender and rehabilitation policy being adopted towards Naxalites. The examples/experiences cited in this paper refer largely to cadres and leaders of Communist Party of India (Maoist), or CPI (Maoist). It is part of a multi-pronged conflict management and resolution strategy and is required to be implemented along with firm action by police against those who follow the path of violence.

    November 2013

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