Non-Traditional Security: Publications

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  • Gas Pipelines—Politics and Rivalries

    In 2012, the International Energy Agency (IEA) in its ‘World Energy Outlook’ said that the world was entering a ‘Golden Age of Gas’. With its lower carbon-emitting properties, gas seemed poised to claim its rightful place in the global energy mix as a bridge between polluting hydrocarbons and green renewables. Moreover, it has all the ingredients to make it as worthy a contender in the energy geopolitical game as did oil a few decades ago.

    January 2018

    CPEC in Pakistan’s Quest for Energy Security

    In May 2017, some 1,200 delegates from 110 countries, including 29 visiting heads of state and government leaders, gathered in Beijing for China’s biggest diplomatic event, which was held to showcase the Belt and Road Initiative’s (BRI) achievements to date, as well as draft some new ideas. The forum also formalised the US$50 billion China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a flagship project of the BRI, projecting it as a game-changer for Pakistan’s economy.

    September 2017

    India’s Decision Making on Cross-Border Natural Gas Pipelines (1989–2012)

    In the last two decades, cross-border gas pipelines have become an integral part of discourse on India’s energy security. Successive reports from the government and the private sector have envisaged an important role for cross-border gas pipeline projects in India. After engaging in negotiations for several years, the Indian Government finally joined the Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India (TAPI) gas pipeline over the Iran–Pakistan–India pipeline (IPI) and the Myanmar–Bangladesh–India pipeline (MBI).

    September 2016

    Impact of Iran’s Return for the Oil Market and India

    As was anticipated, the nuclear sanctions imposed against Iran were finally lifted on January 16, 2016 after it was certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that Iran had met its obligations under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) reached in July 2015 among six world powers.

    May 2016

    Energy Interdependence as a Strategic Factor in the Post-Cold War Context

    Energy, as a resource, has been considered only as a factor of complex geopolitical rivalries and geo-economic calculations globally. This article, on the other hand, attempts to analyse a parallel trend in the post-Cold War international scenario, a trend that shows how energy gains global relevance as a vector of alliance and a link for interdependence, and how economic and environmental challenges have become the compelling factors to push competitors to turn into allies and partners.

    May 2016

    Explaining Non-Arctic States in the Arctic Council

    How has the role of observers in the Arctic Council evolved and why is there increased interest in participation by states and international institutions? This article examines the influence and interest of observers in international institutions. The Arctic Council is an international institution founded in 1996 to promote Arctic environmental protection and sustainable development. Ultimately, observers are weak actors in the Council. Despite this weakness, actors seek to become observers for two reasons.

    May 2016

    Dams as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Geopolitical Implications for Pakistan

    Pakistani planners are increasingly prone to recognize the many links between water, food, and energy security. The construction of new large dams is seen by many as a concrete measure to achieve resource security for Pakistani for a future marked by climactic variability and unpredictability. This article explores the geopolitical and political geographic implications of Pakistan’s strategic vision of building dams as a way to prepare for climate change.

    November 2015

    Where Hawks Dwell on Water and Bankers Build Power Poles: Transboundary Waters, Environmental Security and the Frontiers of Neo-liberalism

    Hydropower development clearly has a significant role to play in the closer integration of different parts of the Himalayas and in facilitating downstream benefits throughout South Asia. However, the neo-liberal approach to infrastructure-led growth frequently overlooks the significant social, economic and political issues associated with this model of development in the region. Furthermore, the ongoing securitisation of water constrains the terms of debate under the guise of a unified national interest and enables large-scale dams to be constructed without due process.

    November 2015

    Nations without Borders: Climate Security and the South in the Epoch of the Anthropocene

    The standard narrative on modern geopolitics is being re-scripted. Previous ingredients that made up the literature on high politics such as securing resources, rivalries over the control of territory and war plans are increasingly being replaced instead by concerns about the ‘mundane’ politics of global energy plans, food systems, infrastructure and city design. Meaningful geopolitics in the time of climate change, in other words, would now have to grapple with the inescapable urgency for sustaining key ecological, biological and atmospheric indicators at the planetary level.

    November 2015

    The Legal Regime of the Arctic and India’s Role and Options

    The Arctic Ocean is melting. Essentially, this means that new sea routes will open up for international navigation, and large resources, especially oil and gas, lying underneath the frozen ice will become more accessible and exploitable. Therefore, in the emerging contemporary debates concerning the Arctic, two important questions are raised: what is the legal regime that applies to navigation in new shipping routes that will open up with the melting of Arctic ice and what is the legal regime that governs the exploitation of the vast oil and gas resources?

    November 2014

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