JOURNAL OF DEFENCE STUDIES

Pakistan: Inter Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI) - An Analytical Overview

Rana Banerji is a retired Special Secretary, Cabinet Secretariat, Government of India.
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  • October 2011
    Volume: 
    5
    Issue: 
    4
    Perspectives

    The ISI was set up in 1948, shortly after the first war with India, to strengthen sharing of intelligence between the army, navy and air force. It was headed first by Maj Gen R. Cawthorne, one of the last British officers to leave Pakistan. He continued at the helm of ISI till 1956. Thereafter, for almost three years, it remained headless as Pakistan faced constitutional turmoil leading finally to Ayub Khan’s first martial law take-over. Ayub appointed Brig Riaz Hussain as ISI chief and he continued up to 1966. He was replaced by Brigadier, later Maj Gen Mohd Akbar Khan, who continued as head of ISI till the calamitous break up of the country in1971.

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