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  • Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives and the Emerging Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region

    Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives and the Emerging Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region
    Author
    2016
    Publisher: Pentagon Press
    ISBN 978-81-8274-895-8
    Price: ₹. 795Purchase Download E-copy

    About the Book

    Maldives is the smallest country of South Asia. But its significance is no less because of its crucial geo-strategic location in the Indian Ocean. It sits astride on major sea lanes of communications (SLOCs). However, the crucial geo-strategic location of the Maldives has also caused problems for the country as it has aroused interests of major world powers. They have tried to meddle into the domestic politics of the Maldives so that a favourable dispensation can come to power, which in turn would promote their interests in the Maldives and in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). Maldives became a multi-party democracy in October 2008 when a new constitution was implemented. This was a positive development in a hundred percent Sunni Muslim country, as a number of other Muslim countries were moving on the path of extremism. Ironically, the multiparty democracy also allowed rise in extremism as radicals used the available democratic space to their advantage. Unfortunately, the first democratic government in the Maldives could not complete its term and the ensuing political instability in the Maldives led to greater meddling by external powers in its domestic politics.

    This book is an attempt to understand the fledgling multiparty democracy in the Maldives, its foreign policy and the evolving security scenario in the Indian Ocean region.

    About the Author

    Dr. Anand Kumar is an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi. After completing his PhD from School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru Univesity (JNU), he joined the IDSA in 2007. His area of specialization is Maldives, Bangladesh, South Asian politics, Counter-terrorism, Proliferation of Small Arms and Low intensity conflicts. Before joining IDSA he worked at South Asia Analysis Group on similar themes. He has also been with the Institute for Conflict Management which specializes on Counter-terrorism.

    His first book Return from the Precipice: Bangladesh’s Fight Against Terrorism was published in year 2012. His edited volume The Terror Challenge in South Asia and Prospect of Regional Cooperation was published in 2011. He has published around 20 articles in reputed journals, contributed around 10 chapters in edited books and delivered lectures on security issues both in India and abroad. He has published hundreds of articles in leading newspapers and magazines. Some of the select publications are “Insurgency in South Asia muted by war on terror,” The Washington Times, January 16, 2004 and The Jihadi Next Door, The Washington Times, 20 May 2010

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements

    Map of Maldives

    1. Introduction
      Methodology
      Organisation

    2. The Road to Multi-party Democracy
      Maldives and the British Suzerainty
      The First Written Constitution of the Maldives
      The Second Constitution
      Establishment of First Republican Government with theThird Constitution
      The Fourth Constitution Brings Elected Monarchy
      Establishment of Second Republic with the Fifth Constitution
      Establishment of Constitutional Assembly by Gayoom
      The 2008 Constitution

    3. Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives
      Presidential Election 2008
      Onset of Multi-party Democracy
      The 2009 Parliamentary Elections
      Emergence of the Political Rivalry
      Nasheed Gives up ‘Forgive and Forget’ Policy
      Power Struggle between the President and the Parliament
      Other Challenges before Nasheed’s Government
      A Legacy of Financial Crisis
      Economic Crisis Alienated People
      Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism
      Emergence of Religious Extremism in the Maldives
      Gayoom and the Islamic Extremists
      Emergence of Extremist Organisations

      Involvement of Maldivians in Terror Attacks
      Islamists in Post-Gayoom Era
      Nasheed’s Government Admits Rising Extremism
      Extremism Hampered Promotion of Tourism
      The Unholy Alliance of Islamists and ‘Democrats’
      Nasheed’s Lack of Political Abilities
      Mishandling of the Political Crisis by Nasheed
      Political Transition or Coup
      Fumbling of Indian Diplomacy
      Setback to Multi-party Democracy


    4. Maldives under Waheed
      The GMR Controversy
      Indian Approach to Political Crisis in Maldives


    5. The Controversial Second Multi-party Elections
      The 2013 Presidential Elections
      Use of Institutions to Further Political and Electoral Interests
      Breaking-up of the Progressive Alliance and Change of Political Scenario
      Islamists under Abdulla Yameen
      Yameen’s Suppression of the Opposition and Re-alignment of Political Forces
      Future of Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives

    6. Changing Regimes and Maldivian Foreign Policy
      Maldives and Indian Interests
      Foreign Policy of the Maldives after Independence (Since 1965)
      Foreign Policy under Gayoom
      Foreign Policy under Nasheed
      Foreign Policy under Waheed
      Foreign Policy under Abdulla Yameen
      Implications for India

    7. Strategic Importance of the Indian Ocean and the Maldives
      Maritime Challenges in the IOR
      Protection of SLOCs
      Piracy
      Maritime Terrorism
      Security against Mining
      Natural Disasters and Oil-related Environmental Disasters
      Absence of a Unified Trans-Oceanic Community in the IOR
      Strategic Interests of the Major Indian Ocean Players
      Indian Interests in the Indian Ocean
      India’s Sea Power
      The US Interests in the Indian Ocean
      Strategic Interests of Australia in the IOR
      Japan’s Interests in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
      China’s Interests and Activities in the Indian Ocean
      Emergence of Chinese Maritime Security Interests
      China and the Maritime Silk Route
      China’s Seabed Mining Forays in the IOR
      India’s Attempt to Reinvigorate Policy towards the IOR
      Tri-Nation Maritime Agreement
      India’s five-fold Framework for Maritime Engagement in the IOR
      Maldives and Major Powers
      Changing Dynamics of the Indian Ocean Region

    8. Maldives and the Great Game in the Indian Ocean Region
      Maldives and Chinese Strategic Considerations
      Chinese Quest for Military Bases
      Maldives Amends Constitution to Enable Foreign Ownership of Land
      Chinese Military Diplomacy with the Maldives
      Negotiation of the US-Maldives SOFA Agreement
      India Striving to Maintain Security Environment of Indian Ocean
      The Emerging Security Scenario in the IOR

    9. The Future of Democracy in Maldives and Its Impact on the Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region

      APPENDICES

      Appendix 1: Statement by His Excellency Mohamed Nasheed, President of the Republic of Maldives to the General Debate of the General Assembly

      Appendix 2: Proposed Agreement between The United States of America and The Republic of Maldives Regarding Status of Forces and Access to and use of Facilities in the Maldives

      Appendix 3: Outcome Document of the Second NSA-Level Meeting on Trilateral Cooperation on Maritime Security between India, the Maldives and Sri Lanka

      Appendix 4: Maldives


    Index

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