Assertion of ethnic and religious identities, forcible merger of former princely states, perceived sense of neglect, disaffection towards the government and pervasive underdevelopment have been instrumental in fomenting insurgencies and terrorism in India. India’s attempts at dealing with these issues have met only with limited success. It has been variously argued that the lack of a sound counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism strategy has been the main reason. Moreover, vested interests, petty politicking, and nexus between politicians, government officials and insurgents are seen as preventing the formulation of such a strategy. Given the enormous international security challenges these twin problems pose, it is imperative that India develops a comprehensive strategy to deal with them. Elements of such a strategy should include concerted efforts to counter the ideological narratives of the insurgent and terrorist groups and highlight the inclusiveness of Indian democracy; effective communication of the government’s developmental measures to uplift the socio-economic profile of the affected people; adherence to the principle of judicious use of force.