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Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives and the Emerging Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region


Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives and the Emerging Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region

Publisher: Pentagon Press
ISBN: 978-81-8274-895-8
Price: Rs. 795 [Download E-Copy] [Buy Now]

About the Book

Maldives is the smallest country of South Asia. But its significance is no less because of its crucial geo-strategic location in the Indian Ocean. It sits astride on major sea lanes of communications (SLOCs). However, the crucial geo-strategic location of the Maldives has also caused problems for the country as it has aroused interests of major world powers. They have tried to meddle into the domestic politics of the Maldives so that a favourable dispensation can come to power, which in turn would promote their interests in the Maldives and in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). Maldives became a multi-party democracy in October 2008 when a new constitution was implemented. This was a positive development in a hundred percent Sunni Muslim country, as a number of other Muslim countries were moving on the path of extremism. Ironically, the multiparty democracy also allowed rise in extremism as radicals used the available democratic space to their advantage. Unfortunately, the first democratic government in the Maldives could not complete its term and the ensuing political instability in the Maldives led to greater meddling by external powers in its domestic politics.

This book is an attempt to understand the fledgling multiparty democracy in the Maldives, its foreign policy and the evolving security scenario in the Indian Ocean region.

About the Author

Dr. Anand Kumar is an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi. After completing his PhD from School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru Univesity (JNU), he joined the IDSA in 2007. His area of specialization is Maldives, Bangladesh, South Asian politics, Counter-terrorism, Proliferation of Small Arms and Low intensity conflicts. Before joining IDSA he worked at South Asia Analysis Group on similar themes. He has also been with the Institute for Conflict Management which specializes on Counter-terrorism.

His first book Return from the Precipice: Bangladesh’s Fight Against Terrorism was published in year 2012. His edited volume The Terror Challenge in South Asia and Prospect of Regional Cooperation was published in 2011. He has published around 20 articles in reputed journals, contributed around 10 chapters in edited books and delivered lectures on security issues both in India and abroad. He has published hundreds of articles in leading newspapers and magazines. Some of the select publications are “Insurgency in South Asia muted by war on terror,” The Washington Times, January 16, 2004 and The Jihadi Next Door, The Washington Times, 20 May 2010



Map of Maldives

  1. Introduction

  2. The Road to Multi-party Democracy
    Maldives and the British Suzerainty
    The First Written Constitution of the Maldives
    The Second Constitution
    Establishment of First Republican Government with theThird Constitution
    The Fourth Constitution Brings Elected Monarchy
    Establishment of Second Republic with the Fifth Constitution
    Establishment of Constitutional Assembly by Gayoom
    The 2008 Constitution

  3. Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives
    Presidential Election 2008
    Onset of Multi-party Democracy
    The 2009 Parliamentary Elections
    Emergence of the Political Rivalry
    Nasheed Gives up ‘Forgive and Forget’ Policy
    Power Struggle between the President and the Parliament
    Other Challenges before Nasheed’s Government
    A Legacy of Financial Crisis
    Economic Crisis Alienated People
    Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism
    Emergence of Religious Extremism in the Maldives
    Gayoom and the Islamic Extremists
    Emergence of Extremist Organisations
    Involvement of Maldivians in Terror Attacks
    Islamists in Post-Gayoom Era
    Nasheed’s Government Admits Rising Extremism
    Extremism Hampered Promotion of Tourism
    The Unholy Alliance of Islamists and ‘Democrats’
    Nasheed’s Lack of Political Abilities
    Mishandling of the Political Crisis by Nasheed
    Political Transition or Coup
    Fumbling of Indian Diplomacy
    Setback to Multi-party Democracy

  4. Maldives under Waheed
    The GMR Controversy
    Indian Approach to Political Crisis in Maldives

  5. The Controversial Second Multi-party Elections
    The 2013 Presidential Elections
    Use of Institutions to Further Political and Electoral Interests
    Breaking-up of the Progressive Alliance and Change of Political Scenario
    Islamists under Abdulla Yameen
    Yameen’s Suppression of the Opposition and Re-alignment of Political Forces
    Future of Multi-party Democracy in the Maldives

  6. Changing Regimes and Maldivian Foreign Policy
    Maldives and Indian Interests
    Foreign Policy of the Maldives after Independence (Since 1965)
    Foreign Policy under Gayoom
    Foreign Policy under Nasheed
    Foreign Policy under Waheed
    Foreign Policy under Abdulla Yameen
    Implications for India

  7. Strategic Importance of the Indian Ocean and the Maldives
    Maritime Challenges in the IOR
    Protection of SLOCs
    Maritime Terrorism
    Security against Mining
    Natural Disasters and Oil-related Environmental Disasters
    Absence of a Unified Trans-Oceanic Community in the IOR
    Strategic Interests of the Major Indian Ocean Players
    Indian Interests in the Indian Ocean
    India’s Sea Power
    The US Interests in the Indian Ocean
    Strategic Interests of Australia in the IOR
    Japan’s Interests in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
    China’s Interests and Activities in the Indian Ocean
    Emergence of Chinese Maritime Security Interests
    China and the Maritime Silk Route
    China’s Seabed Mining Forays in the IOR
    India’s Attempt to Reinvigorate Policy towards the IOR
    Tri-Nation Maritime Agreement
    India’s five-fold Framework for Maritime Engagement in the IOR
    Maldives and Major Powers
    Changing Dynamics of the Indian Ocean Region

  8. Maldives and the Great Game in the Indian Ocean Region
    Maldives and Chinese Strategic Considerations
    Chinese Quest for Military Bases
    Maldives Amends Constitution to Enable Foreign Ownership of Land
    Chinese Military Diplomacy with the Maldives
    Negotiation of the US-Maldives SOFA Agreement
    India Striving to Maintain Security Environment of Indian Ocean
    The Emerging Security Scenario in the IOR

  9. The Future of Democracy in Maldives and Its Impact on the Security Environment in the Indian Ocean Region


    Appendix 1: Statement by His Excellency Mohamed Nasheed, President of the Republic of Maldives to the General Debate of the General Assembly

    Appendix 2: Proposed Agreement between The United States of America and The Republic of Maldives Regarding Status of Forces and Access to and use of Facilities in the Maldives

    Appendix 3: Outcome Document of the Second NSA-Level Meeting on Trilateral Cooperation on Maritime Security between India, the Maldives and Sri Lanka

    Appendix 4: Maldives